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  • Senate passes bipartisan financial regulatory reform bill

    Federal Issues

    On March 14, by a vote of 67-31, the Senate passed the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (S. 2155) (the bill)—a bipartisan regulatory reform bill crafted by Senate Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee Chairman Mike Crapo, R-Idaho—that would repeal or modify provisions of Dodd-Frank and ease regulations on all but the biggest banks. (See previous InfoBytes coverage here.) The bill’s highlights include:

    • Improving consumer access to mortgage credit. The bill’s provisions state, among other things, that: (i) banks with less than $10 billion in assets are exempt from ability-to-repay requirements for certain qualified residential mortgage loans; (ii) appraisals will not be required for certain transactions valued at less than $400,000 in rural areas; (iii) banks and credit unions that originate fewer than 500 open-end and 500 closed-end mortgages are exempt from HMDA’s expanded data disclosures (the provision would not apply to nonbanks and would not exempt institutions from HMDA reporting altogether); (iv) amendments to the S.A.F.E. Mortgage Licensing Act will provide registered mortgage loan originators in good standing with 120 days of transitional authority to originate loans when moving from a federal depository institution to a non-depository institution or across state lines; and (v) the CFPB must clarify how TRID applies to mortgage assumption transactions and construction-to-permanent home loans, as well as outline certain liabilities related to model disclosure use.
    • Regulatory relief for certain institutions. Among other things, the bill simplifies capital calculations and exempts community banks from Section 13 of the Bank Holding Company Act if they have less than $10 billion in total consolidated assets. The bill also states that banks with less than $10 billion in assets, and total trading assets and liabilities not exceeding more than five percent of their total assets, are exempt from Volcker Rule restrictions on trading with their own capital.
    • Protections for consumers. Included in the bill are protections for veterans and active-duty military personnel such as: (i) permanently extending the protection that shields military personnel from foreclosure proceedings after they leave active military service from nine months to one year; and (ii) adding a requirement that credit reporting agencies provide free credit monitoring services and credit freezes to active-duty military personnel. The bill also addresses general consumer protection options such as expanded credit freezes and the creation of an identity theft protection database. Additionally, the bill instructs the CFPB to draft federal rules for the underwriting of Property Assessed Clean Energy loans (PACE loans), which would be subject to TILA consumer protections.
    • Changes for bank holding companies. Among other things, the bill raises the threshold for automatic designation as a systemically important financial institution from $50 billion in assets to $250 billion. The bill also subjects banks with $100 billion to $250 billion in total consolidated assets to periodic stress tests and exempts from stress test requirements entirely banks with under $100 billion in assets. Additionally, certain banks would be allowed to exclude assets they hold in custody for others—provided the assets are held at a central bank—when computing the amount such banks must hold in reserves.
    • Protections for student borrowers. The bill’s provisions include measures to prevent creditors from declaring an automatic default or accelerating the debt against a borrower on the sole basis of bankruptcy or cosigner death, and would require the removal of private student loans on credit reports after a default if the borrower completes a loan rehabilitation program and brings payments current.

    The bill now advances to the House where both Democrats and Republicans think it is unlikely to pass in its current form.

    Federal Issues Federal Legislation Bank Regulatory Dodd-Frank S. 2155 CFPB HMDA Mortgages Licensing TILA TRID Servicemembers Volcker Rule Student Lending Consumer Finance Bank Holding Companies Community Banks Privacy/Cyber Risk & Data Security

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  • GAO recommends the CFPB review the effectiveness of TRID guidance for small institutions

    Federal Issues

    On February 27, the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) released a report of recommendations to financial regulators on actions to take related to the compliance burdens faced by certain small financial institutions. The report is the result of a study the GAO initiated with over 60 community banks and credit unions (collectively, “institutions”) regarding which financial regulations were viewed as the most burdensome. Among others, the report includes a recommendation to the CFPB that it should assess the effectiveness of its TILA/RESPA Integrated Disclosure Rule (TRID) guidance and take affirmative steps to address any issues that are necessary. In a response to the GAO that is included in the report, the CFPB Associate Director David Silberman said, “the Bureau agrees with this recommendation and commits to evaluating the effectiveness of its guidance and updating it as appropriate.” Among other recommendations, the GAO highlights the need for the CFPB to coordinate with the other financial regulators on their periodic Economic Growth and Regulatory Paperwork Reduction Act (EGRPRA) reviews.

    In addition to the compliance concerns with TRID disclosures, the GAO reports that the institutions also consider the data reporting requirements under HMDA, and the transaction reporting and customer due diligence requirements of the Bank Secrecy Act and related anti-money laundering laws the most burdensome. The GAO includes specific recommendations to the other financial regulators to strengthen and streamline regulations through the EGRPRA process.

    Federal Issues GAO CFPB Mortgages TRID HMDA Bank Secrecy Act Anti-Money Laundering EGRPRA

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  • FFIEC releases 2018 HMDA reporting guide

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance

    On February 21, the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) issued the 2018 edition of the “A Guide to HMDA Reporting: Getting it Right!” which reflects updates to the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) rule, effective January 1, 2018. The HMDA reporting guide is updated annually to assist institutions with their reporting requirements for the specified calendar year. Additionally, the CFPB recently launched their 2018 Loan/Application Register (LAR) Formatting Tool to assist small volume lenders in creating an electronic file to submit to the FFIEC HMDA platform, previously covered by InfoBytes here.

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance Fannie Mae Freddie Mac Servicing Guide HMDA Mortgages FFIEC

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  • CFPB Succession: Senators express concern over CFPB’s investigation into data breach; Otting praises Mulvaney; & more

    Federal Issues

    On February 7, a bipartisan group of 32 senators wrote to the CFPB expressing concerns over reports that the Bureau may have halted an investigation into a large credit reporting agency’s significant data breach. The letter requests specific information related to agency’s oversight over the issue, such as, (i) whether the CFPB has stopped an on-going investigation into the data breach and if so, why; (ii) whether the CFPB intends to conduct on-site exams of the credit reporting agency at issue; and (iii) if an investigation is on-going, details related to the steps taken in that investigation. Additionally, on February 6, during a House Financial Services Committee hearing on the Financial Stability Oversight Council (FSOC), Representative David Scott, D-Ga., addressed rumors that the CFPB has scaled back its investigation of a large credit reporting agency’s significant data breach. In response to Scott, Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin noted that, while he has not done so yet, he intends to discuss the matter with acting Director Mulvaney and at FSOC. According to reports, a spokesperson for the Bureau noted that Mulvaney takes data security issues “very seriously” but that the Bureau does not comment on open enforcement or supervisory matters. It has also been reported that the CFPB may be deferring to the FTC’s on-going investigation.

    Comptroller of the Currency, Joseph Otting, issued a statement on February 6 after meeting with Mulvaney about ways the CFPB and the OCC can work together to pursue each agency’s mission. Otting praised Mulvaney’s leadership of the agency and noted that the recent announcements regarding HMDA compliance and the payday rule reconsideration have “helped to reduce the burden on the banking system.” (Previously covered by InfoBytes here and here).

    On the same day, the CFPB announced that Kirsten Sutton Mork was selected as the new chief of staff for the agency. Mork had been serving as staff director of the House Financial Services Committee under Chairman Jeb Hensarling, R-Texas. Leandra English previously held the role of chief of staff, prior to her appointment as deputy director in late November. English’s litigation against the appointment of Mulvaney as acting director continues with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit and oral arguments have been set for April 12.   

    Federal Issues CFPB Succession Credit Rating Agencies Enforcement CFPB HMDA Payday Lending

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  • CFPB releases HMDA formatting tool and updates filing instructions

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance

    On February 1, the CFPB launched their 2018 Loan/Application Register (LAR) Formatting Tool (the “Tool”). According to the website, the Tool is intended to assist small volume lenders in creating an electronic file to submit to the HMDA Platform. The Tool is only intended to be used by institutions that are not able to format their HMDA data into a “pipe delimited text file.” The Bureau also announced minor updates to the 2018 Filing Instructions Guide for HMDA. As previously covered by InfoBytes, the CFPB’s supervisory examinations of 2018 HMDA data will be “diagnostic” to help “identify compliance weaknesses, and will credit good-faith compliance efforts.” The CFPB does not intend to impose penalties with respect to errors reported in the 2018 data.

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance CFPB HMDA Examination Mortgages

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  • House passes HMDA relief for small banks

    Federal Issues

    On January 18, by a vote of 243-184, the House passed H.R. 2954, to amend HMDA to exempt low-volume mortgage lenders from certain disclosure requirements. If enacted, the bill would exempt depository institutions from maintenance of records and disclosure requirements if, (i) for closed-end mortgage loans, “the depository institution originated less than 500 closed-end mortgage loans in each of the 2 preceding calendar years”; and (ii) for open-end lines of credit, “the depository institution originated less than 500 open-end lines of credit in each of the 2 preceding calendar years.” On January 19, the bill was received in the Senate and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs.

    Federal Issues U.S. House Federal Legislation HMDA CFPB Senate Banking Committee Mortgages

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  • OCC highlights supervisory priorities in fall 2017 semiannual risk report

    Federal Issues

    On January 18, the OCC announced the release of its Semiannual Risk Perspective for Fall 2017, identifying key risk areas for national banks and federal savings associations. Top supervisory priorities will focus on credit, operational, and compliance risk. As previously discussed in the spring 2017 semiannual report, compliance risk continues to be an ongoing concern, particularly as banks continue to adopt new technologies to help them comply with anti-money laundering rules and the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA), in addition to addressing increased cybersecurity challenges and new consumer protection laws. (See previous InfoBytes coverage here.) The OCC commented that these types of risks can be mitigated by banks with “appropriate due diligence and ongoing oversight.”

    Specific areas of particular concern include the following:

    • easing of commercial credit underwriting practices;
    • increasing complexity and severity of cybersecurity threats, including phishing scams that are the primary method of breaching bank data systems;
    • using limited third-party service providers for critical operations, which can create “concentrated points of failure resulting in systemic risk to the financial services sector”;
    • compliance challenges under the BSA; and
    • challenges in risk management involving consumer compliance regulations.

    The report also raises concerns about new requirements under the Military Lending Act along with pending changes to data collection under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act, which could pose compliance challenges. It further discusses a new standard taking effect in 2020 for measuring expected credit losses, which “may pose operational and strategic risk to some banks when measuring and assessing the collectability of financial assets.”

    The data relied on in the report was effective as of June 30, 2017.

    Federal Issues Agency Rule-Making & Guidance OCC Risk Management Bank Regulatory Third-Party Bank Secrecy Act HMDA Military Lending Act Vendor Management Anti-Money Laundering Privacy/Cyber Risk & Data Security

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  • CFPB succession update: Judge denies English’s motion

    Federal Issues

    On January 10, Judge Timothy Kelley denied CFPB Deputy Director Leandra English’s request for a preliminary injunction to prevent OMB Director Mick Mulvaney from serving as the acting director of the CFPB. In his opinion, Judge Kelley emphasized that English failed to show a likelihood of success on the merits because, among other reasons, “[t]he best reading of the two statutes [at issue] is that Dodd-Frank requires that the Deputy Director ‘shall’ serve as acting Director, but that under the [Federal Vacancies Reform Act] the President ‘may’ override that default rule.” Additionally, in finding that English failed to demonstrate irreparable harm, Judge Kelley stated that “[t]he CFPB is not and will not be shuttered; it continues to operate with Mulvaney functioning as acting director” with “the backing of the CFPB’s General Counsel and senior management.” He concluded his opinion by stating:

    There is little question that there is a public interest in clarity here, but it is hard to see how granting English an injunction would bring about more of it….  The President has designated Mulvaney the CFPB’s acting Director, the CFPB has recognized him as the acting Director, and it is operating with him as the acting Director.  Granting English an injunction would not bring about more clarity; it would only serve to muddy the waters.

    The decision follows a hearing on December 22, 2017, where Judge Kelley heard arguments from both parties, as previously covered by InfoBytes. While English’s requests have now been denied twice, as expected, she has filed an appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit, which is also currently considering the challenge to the CFPB’s constitutionality by PHH Corporation.

    In addition to the English litigation, Mulvaney and President Trump face similar arguments in a complaint brought by a credit union in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, as previously covered by InfoBytes here. On December 22, 2017, the defendants responded to the complaint with a motion to dismiss, arguing that the credit union does not have standing to sue, will not succeed on the merits, and will not suffer irreparable harm from the appointment. In its reply, the credit union added an additional argument that the CFPB’s decision to slow HMDA enforcement will remove the compliance incentive and HMDA data “will cease being reliable” to show compliance with the Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”). The credit union asserts that banks deposit at their institution to meet CRA objectives but may cease to do so without an incentive to comply with HMDA. A hearing is scheduled for January 12. 

    As previously covered by InfoBytes, the CFPB issued a statement that supervisory examinations of 2018 HMDA data will be “diagnostic” to help “identify compliance weaknesses, and will credit good-faith compliance efforts” and that it does not intend to impose penalties with respect to errors reported in the 2018 data.

    Federal Issues CFPB Succession Courts HMDA Congressional Review Act

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  • Buckley Sandler Insights: OMB releases updated and possibly outdated CFPB rulemaking agenda

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance

    OMB has released the CFPB’s Fall 2017 rulemaking agenda. Although this is the first update to the agenda since Richard Cordray left the agency in November 2017, delays in the publication of rulemaking agendas are common so the updated agenda may not reflect the views of new CFPB leadership. The updated agenda does not appear on the Bureau’s website. Further:

    • HMDA & ECOA Amendments: The updated agenda states that the Bureau planned to determine by December 2018 whether to make permanent adjustments to the threshold for reporting open-end lines of credit. However, as discussed in greater detail here, the CFPB stated on December 21 that it intended to engage in a broader rulemaking to (i) re-examine the criteria determining whether institutions are required to report data; (ii) adjust the requirements related to reporting certain types of transactions; and (iii) re-evaluate the required reporting of additional information beyond the data points required by the Dodd-Frank Act.
    • Prepaid Cards: The updated agenda states that the CFPB expected to finalize amendments to its rule on prepaid cards in November 2017, but no final amendments have been issued. Instead, on December 21, the CFPB announced its intent to adopt final amendments “soon after the new year” and stated that it expects to extend the April 1, 2018 effective date to allow more time for implementation.
    • Debt Collection: The updated agenda states that the CFPB expects to issue a proposed rule in February 2018 “concerning FDCPA collectors’ communications practices and consumer disclosures.” However, on December 14, OMB announced that the CFPB had withdrawn its planned survey regarding debt collection disclosures because “Bureau leadership would like to reconsider the information collection in connection with its review of the ongoing related rulemaking.”

    See previous InfoBytes coverage on the HMDA, Prepaid, and Debt Collection rulemaking updates.

    Other noteworthy aspects of the updated agenda include:

    • Regulation Reviews: The updated agenda reiterates the Bureau’s intent to review the regulations inherited from other agencies and “clarify ambiguities, address developments in the marketplace, and modernize or streamline regulatory provisions.” The updated agenda lists “pre-rule activities” as continuing through February 2018, rather than September 2017 under the prior agenda.
    • “Larger Participants” in Installment Lending: Consistent with the prior agenda, the CFPB states that it is preparing a proposed rule to define the “larger participants” in the personal loan market (including consumer installment loans and vehicle title loans) that will be subject to Bureau examinations. The updated agenda also states that the Bureau is still considering “whether rules to require registration of these or other non-depository lenders would facilitate supervision, as has been suggested to the Bureau by both consumer advocates and industry groups.” However, while the prior agenda indicated that a proposal was expected in September 2017, the new agenda lists May 2018.
    • Overdrafts: The updated agenda states only that the CFPB is “continuing to engage in additional research and consumer testing initiatives relating to the opt-in process” for overdraft protection and that “pre-rule activities” will continue through this month.  Under the prior agenda, pre-rule activities were scheduled to continue through June 2017.
    • Small Business Lending: The agenda indicates that the long-delayed implementation of the small business data reporting provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act will be delayed even longer. The last agenda listed “pre-rule activities” as continuing through June 2017, stating that the CFPB “is focusing on outreach and research to develop its understanding of the players, products, and practices in the small business lending market and of the potential ways to implement section 1071.” The new agenda states that these activities will continue until May 2018, after which the Bureau “expects to begin developing proposed regulations concerning the data to be collected, potential ways to minimize burdens on lenders, and appropriate procedures and privacy protections needed for information-gathering and public disclosure.”
    • TRID/Know Before You Owe Amendments: The updated agenda lists April 2018 as the expected release date for finalization of the July 2017 proposed rule addressing the “black hole” issue, which is discussed in a Buckley Sandler Special Alert. The prior agenda listed March 2018.
    • Mortgage Servicing Amendments: In October 2017, the CFPB issued proposed amendments to the mortgage periodic statement requirements to further address circumstances in which servicers transition between modified and unmodified statements in connection with a consumer’s bankruptcy case. The updated agenda does not provide an expected release date for final amendments.
    • Credit Card Agreement Submission: The agenda continues to state that the Bureau is considering rules to modernize its database of credit card agreements to reduce the submission burden on issuers and to make the database more useful for consumers and the general public. The agenda lists “pre-rule activities” as continuing through February 2018. Under the prior agenda, pre-rule activities were scheduled to continue through October 2017.

    Agency Rule-Making & Guidance CFPB HMDA ECOA Prepaid Cards Debt Collection Installment Loans Overdraft Small Business Lending TRID Mortgage Servicing Credit Cards

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  • CFPB Releases HMDA Tools; Updates HMDA Asset Threshold

    Federal Issues

    On December 27, the CFPB announced the launch of a HMDA Check Digit Tool and a Rate Spread Calculator to assist financial institutions in the calculation of data field values required for reporting HMDA data. According to the CFPB, the HMDA Check Digit Tool and the Rate Spread Calculator will remain available to financial institutions throughout the 2018 collection period and beyond. As previously covered by InfoBytes, new HMDA data collection and reporting requirements under the amendments to Regulation C became effective January 1, 2018.

    Also on December 27, the CFPB published a final rule increasing the asset-size exemption threshold under HMDA for financial institutions. As of January 1, 2018, banks, savings associations, and credit unions with assets of $45 million or less as of December 31, 2017 are exempt from collecting data in 2018. Regulation C requires the CFPB to adjust the asset threshold based on the year-to-year change in the average of the CPI–W (not seasonally adjusted) for each 12-month period ending in November, rounded to the nearest million. During the 12-month period ending in November 2017, the CPI–W increased by 2.1 percent, resulting in an increase in the threshold from $44 million to $45 million.

    Federal Issues CFPB HMDA Mortgages

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